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Completed projects

Our partnerships with industry are already adding value to the oil and gas industry. We're excited to share these inspiring technologies and the impact they are making.

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  • Permasense Sensor

    Innovative wall thickness monitoring system can save industry >85% over traditional methods


    Chevron - Permasense Erosion Sensors A field trial of the Permasense (now Emerson Rosemount) wireless wall thickness measurement system was undertaken on the Chevron Alba Northern Platform. The technology consists of a non-intrusive, wireless sensor which provides continuous measurement of pipework wall thickness, with metal loss detection, for managing asset integrity. Each sensor can route the data it collects back to the gateway and has a battery life of up to nine years, which minimises maintenance requirements. The trial focussed on the water injection system and consisted of eight ET210 sensors installed on a number of key bends (at the 6 o'clock position) and at straight sections of pipework, recording over a period of six months. Completed Chevron works to meet the world's growing demand for energy by exploring for oil and natural gas; refining and marketing gasoline; producing chemicals and more. Asset Integrity Permasense Erosion Sensors Chevron Develop Transform Tomorrow The Permasense wireless wall thickness monitoring system has the potential to save the industry >85% over traditional wall thickness measuring methods. The overall cost saving per annum for one single monitoring location would be in the region of £3,500, with an annual cost saving to the UKCS of £1 million. Sensors can be fitted on insulated and uninsulated equipment. When insulated, the sensors are fitted underneath insulation, which has the potential to significantly reduce costs: insulation does not require to be stripped and reapplied every time an inspection is required; plus the sensors are low power with up to nine years battery life, minimising maintenance throughout operations.
  • Osokey Image

    Taking seismic data into the cloud

    Osokey Limited

    Osokey - Seismic in the Cloud We are co-funding a project with a major North Sea operator and Osokey to develop seismic technology in the cloud. The project will transform the existing subsurface technical environment using Osokey's cloud expertise and innovations. This solution will deliver rapid data access, improved collaborative working and deliver greater workflow efficiency. The project will remove data duplication from subsurface workflows and enable new ways of working with seismic data. The project will use the Operator's 2D, 3D and pre-stack seismic to deliver a highly scalable data repository that can connect to cloud hosted workstations. By removing the constraints of restricted storage volumes and user hardware specifications, Osokey's innovations will drive greater productivity, connect global expertise with data and significantly reduce costs across the industry. In-Progress Osokey deliver cloud-based data management, collaboration & data analysis solutions to the energy industry. Digital Transformation Seismic in the Cloud Osokey Limited Develop Fix Today This project will drive greater productivity, connect global expertise with data and significantly reduce costs across the industry.
  • Cults Telecom Abstract

    Low-power, wide-area network feasible in offshore environment, reducing the cost of communication

    Cults Telecom Services Limited

    Cults Telecom Services Limited - LoRaWAN for offshore This project, supporting Cults Telecom Services Limited, was established to demonstrate the capability of a low-power, wide-area network (LoRaWAN) to provide connectivity, test information and a hands-on demonstration that an Internet of Things (IoT) - transferring data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction - is applicable in offshore environments is feasible. In particular, the project will demonstrate whether LoRaWAN technology has viability in an industrial offshore setting (on the drill rig) by performing a site survey for signal coverage above deck. Completed Industrial telecommunications and networking, especially in Oil & Gas. Particular experience in 4G LTE WAN, both as a customer and working for a mobile operator, and Industrial Ethernet. Digital Transformation LoRaWAN for offshore Cults Telecom Services Limited Develop Fix Today LoRa potentially replaces other more expensive communications technologies at a lower cost. Alternatively it can be retrofit to enhance existing systems. This is an enabling technology that could reduce the cost of communication, as well as introducing competition to the market.
  • Generic 027

    Looking beyond traditional heavy lift vessels to support decommissioning

    Baillex Limited

    Baillex Limited - Heavy Lift Vessel Availability Study The key objective of this study is to provide a detailed assessment of the levels of heavy lift activity in the NWECS region, through a combination of supply/demand scenarios through to 2025. These scenarios need to be placed in context to each other and their drivers as well as highlight the wider market supply/demand from other markets and potential bottlenecks or issues from compounded demand with moving schedules. No Baillex Limited is an independent research-led company specialising in the provision of key data & information in support of the offshore oil & gas service and supply chain. Decommissioning Heavy Lift Vessel Availability Study Baillex Limited Adopt Maximise Recovery A comparative market assessment of demand and supply pertaining to late-life and decommissioning offshore heavy lift, including drivers, market influencers, lift scenarios (inc. piece-small, multiple lift, single lift, campaigns), and the impact of other markets; supported by data on demand (projects), and supply (vessels).
  • Intelligent Plant Image

    Data analytics mitigate plant/equipment trips, avoiding unnecessary downtime, increasing efficiency and realising cost savings

    Intelligent Plant Ltd

    Intelligent Plant - SEER statistical Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Intelligent Plant is developing and testing an alarm root cause analyse (RCA) capability through data analytics methods and a cloud-based application (SEER) for use in the diagnosis of the major equipment 'trips' or downtime, which will allow the end user to modify operational, maintenance or engineering practice to potentially monitor and prevent future failures. The current inability to prevent trips has been identified as a major cause of downtime, so the success of the project would mitigate this and increase production efficiency and provide significant cost savings. In-Progress Intelligent Plant specialise in the performance monitoring of equipment and processes through analysis and visualisation of real-time data, and in the management of alarm data. The company consists of both engineers and computer scientists forming a team of very capable and skilled professionals who provide innovative and tailored solutions to their global clients. Digital Transformation Seer - Alarm RCA Application Intelligent Plant Ltd Adopt Maximise Recovery The current inability to prevent 'trips' has been identified as a major cause of downtime, so the success of the project would mitigate this and increase production efficiency and provide significant cost savings.
  • Abstract

    An innovative and alternative single lift system which enables cost-effective decommissioning through removal and transportation of complete offshore jacketed platforms

    Keops Ltd

    Keops Ltd - Offshore Platform Lifting The estimated cost of decommissioning North Sea platforms on the UK Continental shelf is in the region of £51 billion (OGA Report, 2019). Innovative technology such as Keops development of an innovative and alternative single lift system that facilitates the removal and transportation of complete offshore jacketed platforms is key to unlocking cost-effective solutions for decommissioning offshore platforms. No Engineering Consultancy Emissions Reduction Offshore Platform Lifting Keops Ltd Adapt Fix Today This system provides a highly cost-effective solution for decommissioning offshore platforms, with potential for re-use of the platform and the system itself.
  • Tendeka Image

    Wireless communication technology between surface and downhole can save up to £4million per year


    Tendeka - PulseEight - Onshore PulseEight trial The OGTC supported Tendeka to undertake a field trial of their PulseEight technology, onshore in a gas storage well. PulseEight is a wireless, intelligent completion technology, capable of bi-directional communication between the surface and downhole. It uses a unique pressure pulse telemetry suitable for multi-phase fluid environments, to allow wireless communication between the wellhead and downhole. Because this eliminates control lines, it is easy to install and therefore a cost-effective solution. Completed Advanced Completions and Production Optimisation for our Clients' Reservoirs From simple to complex well designs, Tendeka's extensive track record to overcome production challenges in the most demanding operating environments ensures measurable results for our clients. Wells PulseEight - wireless telemetry Tendeka Adapt Maximise Recovery Using this technology allows operators to extend the life of existing assets, as well as developing new fields more effectively, reducing the need for intrusive well intervention work. It reduces the need for at least one wireline intervention per year on a well. For every 25 wells the system is deployed on, the industry would save around £4 million per annum.
  • AquaTerra 1

    Aquaterra develop efficient stabilising system, achieving 80% savings over traditional methods

    AquaTerra Group Ltd

    AquaTerra Group Ltd - Conductor/Caisson/Riser Stabilising System Lateral wave movements cause impact on caissons, risers and conductors, and their supporting steelwork. This causes fatigue and fretting damage, which is both costly and dangerous. Existing shim-type solutions can be costly and, in some cases, unreliable, require replacement after a short period of time. The OGTC supported Aquaterra to develop new technology aimed at stabilising offshore caissons, risers and conductors, to reduce movement, increase guide stability and moderate vibrations - in the long-term extending their operational life. The initial phase of the project developed and tested a urethane-based two component polyurethane system (including installation tests on a conductor restraint mock-up) that doesn't require specialist equipment to install and cure at low temperatures. No AquaTerra is a leading industry specialist for difficult access operations and potentially hazardous environments. Asset Integrity Conductor/Caisson/Riser Stabilising System AquaTerra Group Ltd Develop Fix Today A typical shim programme costs approximately £50,000 per conductor. Using this system would result in 80% cost savings, due to the materials used, ease of installation and efficient preparation and deployment.
  • Gaunlet Image

    Safer, low-cost containment system for valve actuators realises 90% saving over the cost of replacement


    Infinity - Actuator Safety Gauntlet Infinity has developed a product that could diffuse "ticking time bombs" on platforms, saving UK operators more than £320million. Actutors are automated devices used to open and close valves - they contain huge amounts of potential energy. If they break, the powerful springs inside them can eject components at high velocity which undoubtably can cause fatal injuries and damage equipement. The Failforce Actuator Safety Gauntlet is akin to a bullet proof bag, that can be fitter over actuators which have fallen into poor condition offshore, thus making them safe. The actuator gauntlet is made of layers of Kelvar, inside a water-tight, UV-resistant bag. It is intended for single use, but the material could be recycled (depending on the level of damage cause by an actuator blowout). No Infinity is a group of independent company's operating within the Engineering, Offshore and Logistics sectors. Over the years we have built a reputation for delivering high quality, cost effective solutions to our clients. Asset Integrity Fail Force Infinity Develop Fix Today There are approximately 600 actuators on board each offshore installation, with 261 operational assets in the UKCS - this is potentially more than 156,500 actuators in the UKCS alone. The estimated total cost to replace all actuators would be in excess of £1.4billion. Even if only 25% of all actuators needed to be replaced, that would cost £368million. The cost of installing the Failforce Actuator Safety Gauntlet to those 25% would cost £39million - a saving of approximately £329million across the UKCS. 90% cheaper than replacement, with a potential to add >£300million to the UKCS.
  • Stork - Swage Tool

    Repair solution reinstates caissons to full operation, saving almost 50% and avoiding full replacement

    Stork, A Fluor Company

    Stork, A Fluor Company - Swage Tool The majority of caissons are now exceeding their expected design life. As a result, they can develop perforations, cracks and other anomolies, increasing the risk of failure. This impacts production performance and can be a in a major accident hazard. Oil and gas operators with aging assets are under closer scrutiny, from both an integrity and HSE perspective, to ensure caissons are in a safe and operable condition. Through collaboration with Stork, a field trial was undertaken on the Ninian Central Platform to deploy a swaging solution which installs prefabricated liners inside damaged caissons to provide structural integrity. This technology returns caissons back to full service without the need to replace the entire caisson, and also eliminates dropped object potential. Completed Stork, a Fluor company, is a value-driven provider of fully integrated operations, maintenance, modifications and asset integrity solutions. With approximately 18,000 employees in over 100 countries, we serve more than 4,000 clients across 6 continents. Asset Integrity Swage Tool Stork, A Fluor Company Adopt Fix Today A typical caisson repair solution would be in the region of £240,000. Using this new approach would realise a cost saving of £110,000, against full replacement, alongside broader benefits; ease of installation and more efficient preparation and deployment.
  • MPS

    Mechanically connected subsea pipelay system improves integrity and saves 25-45% compared with traditional methods

    Cortez Subsea Limited

    Cortez Subsea - Mechanical Connector - Study Welded subsea pipeline systems are used in most developments. Industry needs more time and cost-effective alternatives to improve economics and unlock reserves. The Cortez Subsea patented Modular Pipelay System (MPS™) enables Zap-Lok™ and other mechanically connected pipe to be laid from a standard DP2 vessel. This flexible pipelay is adjustable in both width and length, and has no heat affected zones, avoiding the need for welding. The GMC Intelligently Connected Pipe (ICP™) is designed for deep water and ultra deep water (including pre/post-salt projects). The ICP™ offers faster make-up due to pre-manufactured components being transported to the field as completed pipe joints. Integrity is also increased using high-strength, fatigue and corrosion-resistant connections. No Focused on Advancing Technology and Maximising Value, Cortez Subsea is an enabler of subsea pipeline and inspection solutions for the oil & gas industry. Marginal Developments Mechanical Connector Study Cortez Subsea Limited Fix Today With faster make-up and improved integrity, this technology has the potential to reduce overall costs by between 25-45%.
  • Generic 021

    Reducing uncertainty of subsurface properties through deep vertical imaging for onshore wells


    Adrok - ADR Virtual Borehole Better understanding subsurface is critical, particularly reducing uncertainties. Adrok's Atomic Di-Electric Resonance (ADR) Technology has been developed to better define the subsurface stratigraphy, reducing uncertainty and increasing the potential of hydrocarbon discovery and recovery. Completed We perform geophysical services in the most challenging environments possible. Emissions Reduction ADR Virtual Boreholes Adrok Develop Maximise Recovery The application of this technology allows operators to determine reservoir properties without having to drill a well - saving both cost and time during the drilling process.
  • OI Image

    Rigless compaction technology for well plug and abandonment could save £4million per well

    Oilfield Innovations Limited

    OilField Innovation - Tubing Compaction The OGTC supported Oilfield Innovations' onshore trial for enabling new rigless well plug and abandonment technology. Traditionally, abandonment of oil and gas wells is an expensive process using a rig to pull the tubing (reversing the installation process), which then provides unobstructed casing space for cementation opportunities. New technology developed by Oilfield Innovation removes a window of approximately 100ft of completion tubing (from above the production packer) to allow access to the production casing for logging and barrier placement, without the need to bring in a rig to recover the entire completion string. Using a piston/hydraulic force to compact the tubing, the piston can also clean casing surfaces during compaction to provide an unobstructed casing space suitable for cement bond logging and placement of a cement plug. No Oilfield Innovations Limited is a leader in developing new technology for the Oil and Gas Industry. Wells Tubing Compaction Oilfield Innovations Limited Adapt Fix Today Rigless abandonment offers savings of up to £4 million per well - based on 10% of the 1,400 UKCS wells. This could save the UKCS £50 million per year.
  • Baker Hughes

    Thru-tubing wellbore cement bond has potential to unlock rigless P&A opportunities, optimising inspection and saving up to £550 million

    Baker Hughes

    Baker Hughes GE - Multi-barrier wellbore integrity inspection system OGTC supported BHGE to evaluate a technology that delivers cement logging through multiple casing strings, an advancement on existing solutions which can only deliver logging behind one casing or tubular. A means of inspecting the quality and quantity of cement in the annulus behind casing does not currently exist without removing the wellbore tubing. If it were possible to deploy a tool to inspect the casing annulus cement from within the tubing, additional costs could be avoided and the potential for thru-tubing and rigless abandonments could be realised. The aim was to evaluate a number of potential delivery models and resulted in a four month feasibility study of BHGE's nXis multi-nodal, thru-tubing inspection system. nXis is composed of neutron, x(y)-ray, electromagnetic and ultrasonic inspection techniques. This project would provide proof of concept, showing that combining the techniques would allow defect detection and live, in-situ, 3D visualisation of wellbore defects. No Baker Hughes, a GE company is the world's first and only fullstream provider of integrated oilfield products, services and digital solutions. Drawing on a storied heritage of invention, BHGE harnesses the passion and experience of its people to enhance productivity across the oil and gas value chain. Wells Nxis Thru Tubing Logging Baker Hughes GE Adapt Fix Today By eliminating the requirement to removing tubing, the industry could benefit from significant cost savings by unlocking rigless abandonment opportunities. This technology has the potential to deliver industry savings between £105-£550 million, based on analysis of the UKCS P&A counts up to 2025 - assuming that between 10-50% of the subsea well could be inspected to deliver thru-tubing abandonments.
  • Generic Offshore

    Sudelac examines methods with the potential to optimise P&A techniques


    Sudelac - Tubing Former With +/- 1,400 wells in the UKCS to be abandoned over the next ten years, The OGTC has supported a project with Sudelac to examine methods to optimise plug and abandonment techniques, whilst reducing cost. Sudelac's technology concept is the creation of a tool that can dimple tubulars to improve centralisation of the tubing inside the casing, improving tubular stand-off and optimise the annular area for cementing. The aim of the project was to perform FEA (finite element analysis) modelling of various configurations a new device (TubeFORMER) designed to dimple tubulars and centralise completion tubulars in a casing string. The ability to do this would allow the tubing to be cemented in place and eliminate the need to recover completion tubulars during the well abandonment process. This work was carried out at the Advanced Forming Research Centre (AFRC) at Glasgow University, and consisted of computational modelling of the forces and pressures needed to achieve this. No A UK headquartered upstream oil and gas service sector business providing products and services for well construction through to abandonment. Sudelac Ltd was founded in 2010 by Paul Howlett. Wells Tubing Former Sudelac Develop Fix Today If this technology were successfully developed and implemented, it could save between two and five days per abandonment operation. At a rig rate of approximately £200,000 per day, there is the potential to save between £400,000 and £1 million per well. Studies into tubing deformation show it has potential to eliminate tubular removal and optimise P&A techniques, saving up to £1m per well.
  • GTS Image 1

    Wellbore stability enhanced through the use of glass technology, reducing non-productive time whilst increasing efficiency and extending equipment life

    Glass Technology Services Ltd

    Glass Technology Services Ltd - Wellbore stability using glass technology We are working with GTS to identify glass products that have the potential to be deployed in oil and gas wells to enhance wellbore stability. These soluable glass materials react with fluids and formation to consolidate rock formations either allowing or preventing the flow of formation fluids. If the results of this project are successful, further development would move towards development and subsequent field trials. No GTS is a provider of analysis, mechanical and performance testing, due dilligence support and quality assessment, failure analysis and both research and development and technocal consultancy projects - specialising in glass and glass products. Wells Wellbore stability using glass technology Glass Technology Services Ltd Adopt Maximise Recovery 56 development wells were completed in 2017 with the OGA estimating 2000-3000 wells are needed to meet MER UK requirements. 120-150 new wells will be required per year; assuming 10% application gives 12 wells per year, with potential savings of two days per well. Cost benefit will be established as part of this project.
  • SCI Image

    Accelerated corrosion technology trial optimises steel removal post-decommissioning

    3-SCI Ltd

    3-SCI Ltd - C-Beaver Phase 1- Technical, Economic, Legal, Operational and Scheduling ('TELOS') study 3-SCI Ltd have conducted a feasibility study in to 'TELOS' (Technical, Economic, Legal, Operational and Scheduling). Completed over a 14-week period, it will explore a new method of removing subsea metallic structures by a technique of accelerated corrosion, which can cut or fully dissolve steel, alleviating the unwanted costs and environmental impacts of leaving quantities of steel subsea or returning them to shore. The technology has the potential to increase the rate at which steel is currently eliminated, creating a reduction in time and cost efficiency. No 3-Sci Ltd is run by a team of technical specialists who have experienced in research, product and business development in the engineering, physical and materials sciences. They offer various products in the industrial asset monitoring sector, including our Wi-Corr, wireless remote corrosion monitoring system. Decommissioning Electrical tool to disolve steel by accelerated corrosion & cuts through small lengths of subsea pipeline study 3-SCI Ltd Adapt Transform Tomorrow is the significant cost associated with removal, long-term surveillance and possible costs of intervention associated with steel structures remaining subsea post decommissioning. Extrapolations (approximate) of workshop data (approximately 10 watts eliminating 1 gram of steel per hour) suggest that C-Beaver tools could dissolve steel at the rate of ~ 100 Kg per MW-hr. A C-Beaver applying say, 10 KWatt to 100 feet of 38 Ib/foot steel tubular would reduce that tubular to its corrosion product with two months. A 6 MWatt capacity offshore wind turbine (assumed creating average power at approximately 25% of capacity, could help eliminate steel at the rate of approximately 1000 tons per year. These extrapolations may be improved with optimised engineering.
  • RGU

    Move towards a digitally-enabled supply chain can optimise vessel efficiency, saving costs and safeguarding the environment

    Oil and Gas Authority

    Oil & Gas Authority - Marine Logistics Vessel Optimisation The OGTC worked with the Oil and Gas Authority (OGA) on a digital transformation project which aimed to develop a data sharing, collaborative system, along with optimisation algorithms, to improve the efficiency and use of supply vessels. The transportation of equipment by boat accounts for almost 10% of £10bn total operating costs in the UKCS. By increasing utilisation through the use of digital technology and insights from data, there is an opportunity to significantly reduce the cost of marine logistic operations. A feasibility study was undertaken to look at potential efficiencies within the process. Key to this was determining the drivers that could lead to greater vessel logistics coordination, as well as understanding the constraints that determine the number of vessel trips from harbour to offshore facilities (both static and mobile). No The Oil and Gas Authority's role is to regulate, influence and promote the UK oil and gas industry in order to maximise the economic recovery of the UK's oil and gas resources. Digital Transformation Marine Logistics Vessel Optimisation Oil and Gas Authority Adapt Fix Today Similar approaches and systems have been developed in other industries to optimise logistics. There is potential to reduce marine vessel trips, therefore reducing costs. In addition to this, non-productive time (NPT) could also be significantly reduced. Savings in the order of 20-25% in vessel days could be achieved if there are no operational restrictions. Vessel sharing could realise further savings of 5-10%. Modelling indicated that around 50% of the vessel trips would need to be shared between operators. This is significantly higher than the current 13% observed.
  • Abstract Image

    New way to stimulate flow, capable of operating in all conditions, developed as a life-of-well solution

    Pragma Well Technology

    Pragma - Variable inflow control valve The OGTC is working in partnership with Pragma to develop a production optimisation valve designed to provide operators with a means of infinitely choking or shutting off multiphase fluid / gas flow. This involves producing a standalone scaled prototype valve that is capable of functioning without external power, demonstrating control over its function. This milestone would form the basis of design to further develop and refine control functionality. This funding will take the technology from early stage to mid stage technology readiness. No Advanced Production Technologies for the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. Pragma collaborates with operating companies around the world to reduce costs, increase production and improve oil and gas recovery. Wells Variable inflow control valve Pragma Well Technology Develop Maximise Recovery 10% improved recovery on 15 wells per year, at an average of 700 boe per well per week, could save approximately £21million per year across the UCKS.
  • Clearwell

    High energy thermal device that can enable rigless P&A through in situ removal of tubing components

    Clearwell Technology Ltd

    Clearwell Technology Ltd - Thermic Lance Oil and Gas UK (OGUK) estimates well plugging and abandonment (P&A) represents 40-50% of decommissioning costs. Conventionally, drilling rigs are used to recover tubing and casing strings. Eliminating rigs can reduce the cost of well P&A by up to 50%. No ClearWell Technology Limited was registered in January 2018 and set up specifically to develop an innovative, transformational technology, Therm-X-Mill, for the undertaking of cost effective well plug and abandonment. Emissions Reduction Thermic Lance Clearwell Technology Ltd Develop Fix Today This disruptive technology offers significant cost reductions by enabling rigless P&A. This can save approximately 5 - 20 days of rig time per well abandonment.
  • Sonomatic

    Project examines alternative non-intrusive inspection method to reduce the risk associated with confined entry, while optimising production efficiency

    Sonomatic Ltd

    Sonomatic - Non-Intrusive Vessel Inspection Process vessel inspection is a major cause of production downtime and incurs significant cost to industry. The OGTC collaborated with Total to support the field trial of three non-intrusive inspection (NII) technologies as an alternative inspection method. Total identified two process pressure vessels on its Elgin Franklin platform that were scheduled for traditional intrusive inspection. However in advance of this, they agreed to a NII field trial being carried out while the vessels were online and operational, allowing the results of both approaches to be compared and verified. Three technology providers - Sonomatic, Eddyfi and MISTRAS - were selected to conduct the field trials, and deployed a range of ultrasonic corrosion mapping and time of flight diffraction solutions. Each company was given the brief to develop a Non-Intrusive Inspection plan using industry standard DNV Recommended Practice G103. The aim of this was to meet the requirements of a full intrusive inspection w Completed Sonomatic is a worldwide organisation whose expertise in ultrasonic inspection design, development and application, dates back more than 30 years to our roots in the nuclear sector. Today the company has widened its focus and provides proven yet pioneering services to customers in defence and power generation, but our largest client base is in the challenging oil and gas industry, both upstream and downstream. Asset Integrity Non-Intrusive Vessel Inspection Sonomatic Ltd Adopt Maximise Recovery Overall, the value of non-intrusive inspections (NII) to the industry has been calculated to be in the region of £242 million per annum. This project helps leverage this cost saving by providing an attractive technology which further enables the adoption of NII.
  • Abstract

    Efficient cement placement possible with Magneto-Rheological Blended Cement for effective well barriers - potentially saving £4million annually


    WellSet - Magnetic Cement & Annular Test The OGTC is working in partnership with WellSet to investigate the feasibility of using magnetic rheology in well cementing. Application of a magnetic field aligns particles to enhance cement displacement efficiency and immunity to gravitational migration, potentially leading to more accurate cement placement and better cement integrity, as well as the potential to set shorter abandonment plugs. No Well-Set P&A is a young start-up taking a fresh approach to well abandonment. By thinking 'outside of the box' we have devised innovated new techniques to drive down the cost and risk associated with well decommissoning. Wells Magnetic Cement & Annular Test WellSet Develop Fix Today Improving placement of cement in annulus and preventing repeat cement job could save around one days rig time for each application. Based on approximately 10 wells per year, this could save £4million annually.
  • Thermite 1

    Cutting the cost of well P&A with alternative well barriers


    Interwell - Thermite Plug - Ph 2 Well abandonment accounts for 45% of the total 2020 UK decommissioning estimate, equating to £23bn. Implementing innovative technologies and techniques for well P&A activities is a key opportunity for cost reductions providing benefits for operators whilst also aiding in achieving the MER UK decommissioning cost reduction target of 35%. Historically, “Portland” cement has been the accepted medium for plugging and abandoning wells on the UKCS however it has been recognised that the development of alternative P&A barriers with the ability to be deployed utilising rig-less techniques could be a game changer. Completed Interwell, established in Norway in 1992, has become an international service company providing technologies from wellbore construction right through plug & abandonment. Emissions Reduction Thermite Plug - Ph 2 Interwell Develop Maximise Recovery This has the potential to substantially reduce the cost of P&A operations, potentially saving approximately 10-14 days per well. By applying this approach to just 10% of the projected 1,400 wells to be abandoned over the next 10 years, could save the UKCS around £0.5 billion.
  • Sealand

    Controlled Buoyancy Subsea Recovery Device concept for cost effective seabed recovery

    Sealand Projects

    Sealand Projects - Feasibility Study of Subsea Buoyancy Basket The subsea buoyancy basket is an alternative to a conventional subsea lifting solution, where a crane vessel is commonly used to install/ recover components. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this technology, while also providing an operational review and benchmarking for commercialisation of the concept. The buoyancy basket has application within the oil and gas and renewables markets, along with global export potential for the Arctic and Southern Atlantic. No Sealand projects is an independent consultancy offering experienced and highly specialised project support services to the oil, gas and renewables industries around the world. Decommissioning Feasibility Study of Subsea Buoyancy Basket Sealand Projects Develop Fix Today The subsea buoyancy basket is an alternative to a conventional subsea lifting solution where a crane vessel is commonly used to install/ recover components. There is a market opportunity for cira 300te rated basket based utilisation of between 180 days per annum depending on decommissioning or installation projects with a potential OPEX of £570,00 per year. Based on the basket being on hire for a period of 30 days versus utilising a HLV for 14 days hire. Estimate based on hire rate of £25k per day minimum 30 day hire with 6 projects per annum v HVL £755K per day, 14 day hire.
  • Seacure_1

    Deepwater field trials further 'cements' Deltatek's SeaCure Cementing System capability and track record

    Deltatek Global

    Deltatek Global - Seacure; Field trial with Energean This project is supporting Deepwater Oil Tools to develop Seacure, a special stab-in cementing tool designed to improve the quality and reduce the time taken for conductor cementing in subsea wells. This has secured a project partner, which is running the tool in three offshore wells. The funding covers the deployment of the SeaCure cementing tool on two wells, demonstrating the value potential of the tool while providing a track record for industry to consider in subsequent deployments. In-Progress Deltatek Global was established in response to growing industry demand for efficiently implemented, intelligent, cost saving and risk reducing products to the Oil & Gas Drilling industry. Wells Seacure; Field trial with Energean Deltatek Global Develop Fix Today This technology could provide a time saving of approximately 4 hours from every subsea well and up to 36 hours for many subsea wells. This equates to a cost based value proposition of between £75,000 up to £1M per cement job. With around 20 Subsea wells drilled per year in the UKCS a 20% uptake would result in a saving of between £150,000-£2million.
  • SPI Image

    Coating technology revolutionises asset maintenance - doubles lifespan compared to traditional methods.

    SPI Performance Coatings

    SPI Performance Coatings - EonCoat trial SPi Performance Coatings is developing a solution that will tackle corrosion - one of the main causes of downtime - with a revolutionary protective coating that 'eats' rust on surfaces and self-heals when damaged. The technology has the potential to increase efficiencies and extend the life of existing assets and infrastructure. Two fields have been completed in 2018, including a major international operator. Completed Specialists in cutting edge polyurea and plural component protective coating systems and performance coatings from renowned industry innovators with unrivaled expertise and highly skilled leadership. Asset Integrity EONCOAT SPI Performance Coatings Adopt Transform Tomorrow On average a traditional coating has a lifespan of five years. The anticipated lifespan of the EonCoat system is 10 years, therefore leveraging a 50% cost saving. A typical fabric maintenance budget for an offshore asset is £2.5million per annum, therefore EonCoat has the potential to deliver cost savings of £1.25million per annum for an offshore platform.
  • AI Digital Twin

    HD photography and laser scanning revolutionises asset integrity reporting.

    Global Design Innovation Limited

    Global Design Innovation - Non-Intrusive Tank Inspection - defect assessment software study At present, the industry cannot visualise data across the full asset integrity lifecycle, current digital worker technology relies on traditional methods. Relating digital data to a physical plant location is a manual and subjective activity, which leads to lost time, high costs, potential errors and inconsistencies. Global Design Innovation (GDi) has developed the latest later scanning and photogrammetry technology, which has the potential to transform the entire asset integrity management process. The development of a revolutionary handheld later scanner which will rapidly obtain accurate inspection data, automatically detect and categorise defects, and generate virtual inspection reports will enable engineers to manipulate and manage information. No GDi provides fit for purpose repair orders, engineering support and design solutions across the energy sector. GDI deliver tailored engineering solutions and provide clients a cost effective means of safely and efficiently maintaining assets by utilising latest technology to streamline workflows and increase uptime. Asset Integrity Non-Intrusive Tank Inspection - defect assessment software study Global Design Innovation Limited Adapt Fix Today This technology improves safety, integrity and asset value, saving more than £2 million per platform, per year - £500 million annually on the UKCS.
  • TRAC01

    New technologies examined for non-destructive testing (NDT) of composite wraps.

    TRAC Oil & Gas

    TRAC Oil & Gas - NDT of Composite wraps The offshore oil and gas industry requires an inspection technique that accurately determines the condition of pipe surfaces under composite bandages/ engineered temporary wraps. No TRAC Oil & Gas Ltd is a leading global provider of Rope Access Inspection, Repair & Maintenance services for the Oil & Gas and related industries. Emissions Reduction NDT of Composite wraps TRAC Oil & Gas Develop Fix Today If proven, these inspection technologies could be used to determine more accurately the surface condition and remaining wall thickness of the component underneath the composite bandage without the need for removal.
  • Eserve

    New approach to offshore dimensional surveys.


    Eserve - Repair Order Management Current methods of implementing repair orders such as pipework spool replacements are time consuming, labour intensive and repetitive. Offshore dimensional surveys involve data gathering of hundreds of individual coordinate points and cross-checking against sketches and photographs to obtain enough information for an engineer to generate an accurate isometric drawing. This innovative solution allows operators to rapidly reduce their backlog of survey, design and inspection activity on brownfield projects, modifications and repair orders. The three month project was delivered on time and Eserve have since secured contracts worth more than £1million and created nine jobs. No Eserve International consists of a mix of oil and gas professionals with an aligned aim to create a dynamic and innovative engineering service with flexibility, efficiency and commitment to ensure sustainable long-term solutions. Emissions Reduction Repair Order Management Eserv Develop Fix Today This new approach to offshore surveys has the potential to reduce costs by up to 80% compared to traditional methods.
  • TG_1

    TenzorGEO low-frequency, passive seismic sounding technology gives greater certainty of the presence of hydrocarbons, increasing drilling confidence and reducing costs.


    TenzorGeo - Low Frequency Passive Seismic TenzorGEO is a low-frequency seismic sounding (LFS) technology that measures the LFS response of a drilling prospect and can be used as a direct hydrocarbon indicator, without the need for drilling. Completed Tenzor Geo provides an integrated service in micro seismic data acquisition and interpretation for high accuracy hydrocarbon mapping, delivering a multi-million dollar reduction in E&A campaign costs. Based on a maximum likelihood method, the service has had technical and commercial success onshore. Offshore Energy 4.0 Low Frequency Passive Seismic TenzorGeo Develop Maximise Recovery The TenzorGEO LFS technology provides a direct indication of the presence of hydrocarbons before exploratory drilling. Around one in every ten exploration wells drilled discovers oil. At an average cost of £24 million per well (Oil & Gas Authority, Well Insights Report 2018), increased success could significantly reduce exploration costs. On a three well campaign, the potential saving and value to the industry through the reduction in uncertainty could be in the region of £3.6 million. There is potential to adapt the LFS technology to measure the concentration of geologically stored CO2 or Hydrogen.
  • ABB_1

    Adoption of non-intrusive inspection could reduce confined space entries by 80% and save the UKCS circa £242 million pa in increased equipment availability.

    ABB Limited

    ABB Limited - Non-Intrusive Inspection Landscaping Study Non-intrusive inspection (NII) enables pressure vessels to be inspected with the equipment online and avoids the requirement for entry into confined spaces to perform the examination. No ABB offers consulting services to identify key potential for improvement in the areas of industrial asset management, production processes and operations' infrastructure. Our highly qualified experts have an in-depth knowledge of the needs as well as best practices in the chemical industry, whether you have a single or a comprehensive technical/organizational issue. Our Asset Consulting Services encompass: •Plant performance benchmarking •Performance improvement delivery •Change management and sustainable maintenance excellence •Turnaround excellence •Safety, health and environmental excellence Emissions Reduction Non-Intrusive Inspection Landscaping Study ABB Limited Adopt Maximise Recovery The survey clearly indicates that there is considerable potential to increase the amount of NII undertaken on offshore installations. Whilst limitations in the current capability of non-destructive testing technology suggest that 100% non-intrusive inspection coverage is unlikely to be achieved in the short to medium term, a target of 80% seems reasonable at this time. Further advances in the capability of non-destructive testing methods through development of sensor technology should improve the coverage of the difficult to examine areas and hence broaden suitability of non-intrusive inspection as an alternative inspection method.
  • ESR_1

    Updated Recommended Practice/Guidelines for in-situ inspection of Corrosion Under Insulation within the oil and gas industry.

    ESR Technology Ltd

    ESR Technology Ltd - Evaluation of CUI Inspection Technologies The primary aim of this two-year project was to update and develop a HOIS/Net Zero Technology Centre Recommended Practice/Guidelines (HOIS-G-023 Issue 2) for in-situ inspection of corrosion under insulation (CUI). Completed ESR Technology provides its clients with independent and specialist technical consultancy and services in the Oil & Gas, Space, Industrial and Transport markets Emissions Reduction Evaluation of CUI Inspection Technologies ESR Technology Ltd Adapt Fix Today The Recommended Practice document provides guidance on a wide range of current NDT methods available for corrosion under inspection, by detailing the strengths, limitations and areas of applicability for each one. This work should provide operators and NDT service providers with current relevant information on the best methods for this challenging application and lead to a more consistent approach across the industry.

    RADMAPP renewable resource mapping supports optimising UKCS small pools to support the energy transition

    Aquatera Ltd

    AQUATERA - RADDMAP New technologies and approaches are critical to unlocking the potential of marginal field developments. Access to suitable, low carbon energy for powering fields is key, harnessing the North Sea's wealth of renewable energy resources. Understanding and mapping these resources to meet specific asset, field or reservoir location is vital, but hasn't been available previously. Aquaterra's RADMAPP mapping system is a risk-based decision tool, which identifies key renewable resources across the UKCS, including wind, wave, tidal and solar. These resources are mapped to known marginal fields, identifying natural power source at location. The system can be customised to model bespoke criteria, including optimal natural resource for each well or area. A range of energy solutions including tie-backs, windfarms and cables from shore are then identified and expanded to consider subsurface characteristics, logistics and overall field development economics. No Thinking locally and operating globally Aquatera uses its experience and expertise to help overcome some of the major environmental and energy challenges of our time. The company provides expert services, innovative products, participates in pioneering research and ground breaking ventures. These activities help make people, communities, businesses, projects, regions, countries and the wider world better and more sustainable Marginal Developments RADDMAP Aquatera Ltd Adapt Fix Today By replacing umbilical power with alternative energy sources the industry can harness renewable power to reduce offshore emissions. This can save around £2 million in capital expenditure per deployment, or £145 million if applied to 20% of UKCS marginal developments.
  • Costain_1

    Understanding the opportunities for hydrogen within the offshore oil and gas sector - including the development of marginal fields and repurposing assets

    Costain Group PLC

    Costain - Hydrogen for Marginal Fields Hydrogen is seen as a cleaner, low carbon alternative to gas for power generation and energy storage. It also has the potential to decarbonise the transport sector and provide valuable feedstock to produce chemicals. No Costain helps to improve people's lives by deploying technology-based engineering solutions to meet urgent national needs across the UK's energy, water and transportation infrastructures. Integrated Energy System Hydrogen for Marginal Fields Costain Group PLC Develop Transform Tomorrow The study investigated the opportunities for hydrogen within the offshore oil and gas sector, including the development of marginal fields, and the re-purposing of platforms and pipelines.
  • OREC

    Alternative opportunity for marginal developments explored through gas to wire study by OREC

    ORE Catapult

    ORE Catapult - GTW - Study Significant gas reserves in small reservoirs spread across the North Sea are often uneconomic to bring to shore. With increasing extraction costs and declining prices, industry is looking for new ways to extract gas in a cost-effective way, particularly techniques that support decarbonisation using renewable energy. Gas to wire (GTW) exploits stranded gas assets by using nearby offshore wind farm infrastructure to export power directly as electricity to the grid. GTW has the potential to completely change the economics for developing marginal fields. The concept is in its infancy, and not widely investigated. No Technology innovation and research centre for offshore renewable energy. Integrated Energy System GTW Study ORE Catapult Develop Transform Tomorrow Gas to wire has the potential to completely change the economics for developing marginal fields, particularly when looking at integrated energy systems as part of the journey to net zero.
  • Intelligent Plant Image

    Machine learning to optimise well performance

    Intelligent Plant Ltd

    Intelligent Plant - Well Intelligence Intelligent Plant are developing technology that addresses a challenge in the industry around optimisation of production from complex facilities. Currently wells are tested individually, however this new technology creates an opportunity to utilise data and machine learning to optimise the whole system. This creates an opportunity to potentially increase production by more than 1% of each field that the technology is applied to. Completed Intelligent Plant specialise in the performance monitoring of equipment and processes through analysis and visualisation of real-time data, and in the management of alarm data. The company consists of both engineers and computer scientists forming a team of very capable and skilled professionals who provide innovative and tailored solutions to their global clients. Digital Transformation West Brae production improvement - a 'Well Intelligence' app Intelligent Plant Ltd Adopt Maximise Recovery This project creates an opportunity to potentially increase production by more than 1% of each field that the technology is applied to.
  • Downhole Energy

    Feasibility of a downhole welding construction/repair tool using 3D printing/welding technology

    Downhole Energy Ltd

    Downhole Energy Ltd - 3D downhole printing The OGTC is working with Downhole Energy to progress a feasibility study into the potential for downhole additive manufacturing for casing / tubing repair. This study will establish whether a downhole well construction/repair tool is feasible using 3D printing/welding technology - including detailed welding, mechanical and electric data. It will conclude with a proposed budget and design for the next phase of testing. No We can provide concept design, prototype design and finished machined drawings of individual parts. We have a proven track record in this area developing many downhole tools including test rigs and qualification testing. Wells 3D downhole printing Downhole Energy Ltd Develop Maximise Recovery Scoping study no value until research completed.
  • Evoilve Image 2

    Well planning transformed through collaborative software package


    Evoilve - AI Well Planning Application Typical well operations utilise multiple applications and various modes of communication across operator, rig contractors and service company interfaces. These systems have little cross-linkage and lack data sharing. Data requires manual duplication and valuable lessons learnt can be lost. In addition to this, the process is very time consuming. All of this combined results in increased costs and risk. In order to transform well planning, The OGTC supported a project which looks at well design/abandonment application with continuous data flow through planning and operations, with the ability to analyse lessons learned using artificial intelligence (AI). No We craft bespoke tools to help oil and gas operators in achieving efficiency and performance. Wells AI Well Planning Application Evoilve Develop Fix Today Evoilve's COLLAB software provides a focussed and centralised arena for the engineer to streamline well planning and operation by reducing administrative burdens associated with back to back, high paced, varied well operations so that time can be better spent engineering solutions. Focussing around the well programme and taking the whiteboard to the web, the goal of COLLAB is to transform well planning and reporting by embracing the digital transformation that has swept other industrial sectors, bridging cross communication gaps and providing a central platform for data input. Fewer cost overruns, fewer failures during execution and the ability to continue learning in a structured and integrated manner could transform the industy. An assumption of saving six people planning for six months equates to 12 man months. Across 10 wells operations a year, this could have an annual saving of £876,000.
  • SolaSense - Image 1

    Hand-held data acquisition system delivers downhole data to maximise production and reduce shut-in wells


    SolaSense - Low cost real time DFOS interpretation system Access to well data is key for making informed integrity remediation and abandonment decisions. With over 600 wells currently shut-in across the UKCS due to well management issues, this is a key challenge and opportunity for today's mature North Sea basin. No SOLA Sense provides smart solutions for optimization and monitoring of solar power plants. Our solutions are based on smart embedded sensors, wireless communication, cloud services and data analysis. Offshore Energy 4.0 Low cost real time DFOS interpretation system SolaSense Develop Fix Today With 43% of shut-in wells due to integrity issues, applying this technology could improve well surveillance by driving down the cost of fibre operations. The value of this technology to the UKCS is estimated at >£135million per year. This is based on three areas of application (source: The Oil & Gas Authority) covering: - A 1% reduction in production losses associated with issues that can be detected and address with DFOS (£17million per annum) - Re-instatement of 1% of the current ~600 shut-in UKCS wells (£30million per annum) - An £88million annual saving in plug and abandonment intervention costs through improved leak path identification and barrier location selection
  • Ambient Lifter _1

    Ambient Lifter trial showcases capability to revolutionise decommissioning heavy lifts

    Ecosse IP

    Ecosse IP - Ambient Lifter Technology developer Ecosse-IP are working to develop and field trial Ambient Lifter, an innovative subsea lifting device. The Ambient Lifter system can be used to lift, lower or manouevre any subsea object by controlling buoyancy and ballast in low pressure pipes. This new way of lifting subsea assets provides a faster and more cost effective solution, bringing new confidence to subsea lifting challenges. The use of this technology will help drive significant cost savings for both subsea installation and decommissioning applications. The first field trial took place at Cullen Harbour at the end of September 2018, with a further trial in March 2019. Completed Ecosse IP Limited is a subsea technology developer and offshore engineering consultancy specialising in Oil and Gas, Offshore Wind, Wave and Tidal industries. Emissions Reduction Ambient Lifter Ecosse IP Adopt Transform Tomorrow Value to the UKCS is around £35million annually.
  • Well-Safe Riserless Light Well Intervention

    Deploying a riser-less light well intervention (RLWI) system from a mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) for subsea well plugging and abandonment activities

    Well-Safe Solutions

    Riser-less Light Well Intervention System Deployment from a MODU for Well Decommissioning The OGTC is working with Well Safe Solutions on a feasibility study to evaluate the options available to deploy a Riser-less Light Well Intervention System (RLWI) from a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) for subsea well plugging and abandonment activities. This combined system would enable low cost access to existing subsea wells by providing a fully integrated package of well control barriers and fluid circulation/injection facilities into a single package. A single integrated delivery solution gives continuity, flexibility, reduced multi operation interfaces and technical options when re-entering subsea wells for the first time after many years of operation. An integrated MODU would provide a total well decommissioning solution preventing the need for the current RLWI followed by MODU approach that is commonly deployed in the UKCS, which would lead to significant cost reductions during the execution of the projects and with associated engineering planning and contract management. No We offer a fully integrated ?Tier 1? well abandonment service providing the complete package, using our own bespoke marine and land based assets. Retaining and sharing lessons learned, we will deliver safe, efficient Well Plug and Abandonment operations in collaboration with our clients resulting in cost reductions with open and transparent communication. Decommissioning Riser-less Light Well Intervention System Deployment from a MODU for Well Decommissioning Well-Safe Solutions Adapt Maximise Recovery The integrated MODU will provide a potential saving of between ?25,000 to ?35,000 per day compared to current market rates. Based on a full year of well decommissioning operations this would see an average saving of 25% - 50%, approximately ?2.1MM/year to ?4.2MM/year. This figure is based on 7 to 14 days per well at an average of 12 wells per year at a low cost saving. The current global market has approximately 5000 subsea wells that will require decommissioning, if the new equipment was to be used on 20% of those wells there would be an estimated saving of ?420MM.
  • Seabed

    Controlled Buoyancy Subsea Recovery Device concept for cost effective seabed recovery

    University of Aberdeen

    University of Aberdeen - Study The Subsea Deployment System (SDS) is a submersible buoyancy device which can be used to recover spool pieces, mattresses and manifolds, at a lesser cost than expensive vessels - for example anchor handling. A feasibility study was conducted by a University of Aberdeen MSc student, providing an initial concept - however further work is required to complete the full technical assessment, understand the decommissioning market and potential commercialisation of the system. No 55th out of 750 world universities (top university in Scotland) for research performance (based on the proportion of research appearing in the top 10% of international journals) - CWTS Leiden Ranking 2015. Decommissioning Study University of Aberdeen Develop Fix Today High level feasibility study conducted on subsea buoyancy basket estimates a potential cost saving of 13%, based on 9 day duration.
  • Aecom image 1

    NZTC identified as key enabler in ensuring technology innovation optimises decommissioning activity in UKCS


    AECOM - Decommissioning - Cost Optimisation (supply of services) The study was to assess current decommissioning practices to identify opportunities to optimise delivery of the decommissioning scope. Within the various functional elements that comprise the life cycle of decommissioning. The key strategic question considered in this report is where and how might this innovation be most effective when deployed as new technology. That is, where OGTC should focus in order to generate the maximum value. It concluded that the 35% cost reduction target as set by the OGA is achievable and that the savings would be in 2 areas: Methods innovation - £11.15BN opportunity Technology Innovation - £9.55BN opportunity (£6.74BN in wells) No For more than 80 years, clients have turned to our environmental, engineering, construction, operations and consulting services for their global activity and capital projects. Our expertise, geographic footprint and fit-for-purpose approaches improve performance and reduce risk across the spectrum of upstream, midstream, downstream and petrochemical projects. Decommissioning Decommissioning - Cost Optimisation AECOM Adapt Maximise Recovery The purpose of this study was to consider the decommissioning lifecycle and assess against the various stages of the life-cycle, where there are opportunities to reduce cost. In addition an assessment of the magnitude of potential savings were made.
  • OPEX 2

    Applying big data to asset acquisitions

    OPEX Group

    OPEX Group - Asset healthcare and diligence assessment Offshore infrastructure - platforms containing large amount of complex process equipment - frequently change hands. Some installations have been acquired and their process are changed and adapted multiple times since being installed. Understanding the health, condition and level of operational risk in such a facility is critical for a new owner in order to ensure safe and efficient ongoing operations as soon as possible. Completed OPEX Group helps oil and gas operating companies to increase production performance through the smart application of predictive technologies and applied data science. Offshore Energy 4.0 Asset Healthcare and Diligence Assessment using Advanced Analytics OPEX Group Develop Maximise Recovery Currently, operational due diligence is a costly, lengthy and resource heavy activity that can only identify key financial exposure (inventory size, etc.). To manage uncertainty associated with critical systems condition, new buyers may be required to undertake a full overhaul at considerable impact to production revenue and maintenance cost.
  • OPEX Image

    Predicting behaviours, saving lives, with AI

    OPEX Group

    OPEX Group - Identifying human risk in the oil and gas industry Despite decades of training programmes, tightening of procedures and investment in safety cultures, the ability to proactively manage behavioural risk remains one of the greatest challenges facing challenging industrial sectors, not least the oil and gas sector. Behaviours and attitudes to risk can be different between shifts, different sites or offshore facilities or even the time of day. They are hard to quantify, hard to predict and, therefore, hard to address. Completed OPEX Group helps oil and gas operating companies to increase production performance through the smart application of predictive technologies and applied data science. Other Using predictive technology and behavioural diagnostics to identify human risk OPEX Group Adopt Maximise Recovery This could significantly reduce the likelihood of HSE incidents.

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